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Selected Basic Principles of Chess Opening
Written by Administrator   
Thursday, 28 September 2020 17:54
Chess opening refers to the first 6-8 moves of the game, in which the players aim to bring their forces into a position which will give them the greatest potential power against their opponent. The following principles apply to this stage of the game.

Avoid moving a piece twice.
Unless a piece has been attacked, forcing you to move it, you should refrain from moving a developed piece until the other pieces have also been developed. The case of an attack means it is probable that your opponent has deviated from this rule to your advantage.
It is better to develop the Knights before their respective Bishops.
The rule refers to each side (King or Queen) separately and does not mean that both Knights should be moved before developing a Bishop (see following principle).

It is best to develop both Knights before the Queen's Bishop.

Make sure to develop the pieces on both sides.

It is not advisable to play a piece beyond your own side of the board during the opening stage.
This means that you shouldn't play a piece beyond its 4th square until the other pieces are ready to back up the invasion. One of the exceptions to the rule is the Ruy Lopez form of opening, in which this principle is disregarded in favour of attacking an important piece, which the opponent should need for his defense.

If you have castled, do not allow the opponent to open a file on your King.

It is good to refrain from pinning the opponent's King's Knight before he has castled, all the more so if you have already castled on the King's side.

Avoid making exchanges which develop another piece for the opponent.
If deviation from this rule results in the development of the Queen, one can compensate for the loss of balance in the development of the forces by attacking the adverse Queen. As a rule though, the Queen should not be brought into action too early.

Refrain from exchanging Bishops for Knights early in the game.
As in the early stages of the game Bishops have a longer range than Knights, it is best to keep them in the field as long as possible. Later in the game this difference becomes smaller until in the end it is the Knight which is often more powerful, not being limited to one colour of square like the Bishop is.

Do not attack prematurely.
An attack should wait until there is sufficient force in the field to render it successful.

Search for weak spots in the opponent's position.
Even assuming that no gross mistakes have been made by either player, eventually one of them will make a doubtful move and it is up to his opponent to recognize the resulting weakness and take advantage of it. This is a skill which can only be mastered by practice and observation. A good learning tip is to set up the pieces from a diagram being consulted and try to solve the puzzle alone (which side has the better position, what is the weakness and how to attack it) before playing the moves given.
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